News

Scottish Imprisonment - Recent trends and Costs

Trends

  • On 10 October 2014 the total population of prisoners in custody in Scotland stood at 7,755.
  • Over one-third of the adult male population, and nearly one-tenth of the adult female population is likely to have at least one criminal conviction.
  • The imprisonment rate for Scotland stands at 147 per 100,000. England and Wales have an imprisonment rate of 149 per 100,000, France 102 per 100,000 and Germany 81 per 100,000.
  • In 2012–13, 14,758 people were given a custodial sentence, accounting for 15% of people found guilty of an offence, the highest proportion in the last 10 years.
  • The average length of a custodial sentence in 2012-13 was over nine months (283 days), this is 51 days longer than in 2006-07.
  • On 6 August 2010 a statutory presumption against short periods of imprisonment was decreed in the Scottish Parliament. The Criminal Justice and Licensing (Scotland) Act 2010 states “a court must not pass a sentence of imprisonment for a term of three months or less on a person unless the court considers that no other method of dealing with the person is appropriate.”
  • The proportion of people receiving a sentence of up to 3 months has fallen from 53% of custodial sentences in 2006–07 to 29% in 2012–13.
  • The official capacity for all 15 Scottish prisons is 8,155.During 2013–14 an average of 7,835 prisoners were held in custody a slight fall on the previous year (2012–13, 8,014).
  • The average daily population of sentenced prisoners in 2013–14 fell slightly to 6,375.However, the remand population saw a slight increase over the same period, rising to 1,476.
  • There are currently 14 publicly managed prisons and two privately managed prisons, both run by Serco (HMP Kilmarnock and HMP Addiewell).Combined, the two private prisons held some 1,200 prisoners in 2013–14, 15% of Scotland’s prison population.
  • Recent changes to the prison estate include the closure of HMP Peterhead and HMP Aberdeen in December 2013 and January 2014 respectively, and the opening of HMP Grampian in March 2014, costing £77.7m to construct.
  • The average daily population on Home Detention Curfew (HDC) during 2013–14 was 364. In 2012–13 it was 363.
  • The average daily population of prisoners recalled from supervision or licence has increased by 36% to 701 in 2011–12, from 514 in 2006–07.108The most common reason for being recalled is for failure to comply with the technical conditions of the curfew rather than committing crimes while on HDC. Being out of curfew for more than six hours (38% of all recalls) and breach of licence conditions (24%) accounted for most recall activity. Offending while on licence appears only rarely to be the cause of recall (7% recalled for a new warrant served).
  • In 2012–13, just 10 custodial sentences were imposed on children under the age of 16.

Costs

  • The average annual cost per prisoner place for 2013–14 was £33,153, excluding capital charges, exceptional compensation claims and the cost of the escort contract. This is an increase of £1,227 on the previous year.
  • A 2011 report found that it costs £126 per week to keep someone on HDC, compared to a notional cost of £610 per week to keep them in prison.
  • Hugh Monro, former Chief Inspector of Prisons for Scotland, has stated that “Securing children, young offenders or prisoners is not a cheap option ... the cost of keeping a child in a Secure Unit can be as high as £250k per annum.”
  • Of the £419 million that Audit Scotland estimated was spent by authorities to deal with people sentenced in court in 2010–11, £254 million (61%) was spent restricting the liberty of offenders. 14% (£60.8 million) was spent on rehabilitation and 16% (£66.7 million) was spent on reintegration services to support prisoners moving back into the community.
  • The Scottish Government estimates that the total economic and social costs of reoffending are around £3 billion a year. Further research estimated the total cost of reoffending by a single cohort of offenders who had three or more previous convictions over a ten-year period was £5.4 billion. This is considered an under-estimate as it does not include all the costs incurred by bodies outside the criminal justice system.

Via The Bromley Briefings

HLS Convenor, John Scott QC, Annual SACRO Lecture

Howard League Scotland Convener, John Scott QC, delivered the SACRO annual lecture, offering a human rights analysis of restorative justice as a means of having both victims and offenders at the heart of the criminal justice system.

Listen to the talk here: youtube 
Follow John on twitter

Prison Visiting Committee Reform

Written submission from the Howard League for Penal Reform in Scotland on
Draft Public Services Reform (Inspection and Monitoring of Prisons) (Scotland) Order 2014

1. We welcome the opportunity to comment upon the Draft Public Services Reform (Inspection and Monitoring of Prisons) (Scotland) Order 2014.

2. The monitoring of prisons is a vital function that provides real time, regular scrutiny of our prisons and constitutes an essential element of our obligations as signatories to the UN Optional Protocol to the Convention Against Torture (OPCAT).

3. We welcome the commitment to provide training for the Independent Prison Monitors – something that Visiting Committee members have long called for.

4. The creation of two types of monitor did not form part of Professor Coyle’s recommendations and when consulted on the original draft of the order, Howard League Scotland made clear that it saw no need for the three Paid Monitors. However, the change of name (from ‘Paid Monitors’ to ‘Prison Monitoring Coordinators’) would appear to reflect a rethinking of their role as one that coordinates and supports the ‘Independent Prison Monitors’ (previously ‘Lay Monitors’).

5. However, in practice, the proposed system remains very hierarchical, with much of the activity of the Independent Prison Monitors being directed by the Prison Monitoring Coordinators, who are in turn to be directed by the Chief Inspector of Prisons.

6. We note that the proposed system will cost more than the existing system and that there are now likely to be four, full-time Prison Monitoring Coordinators (PMCs), rather than three part-time PMCs, as originally envisaged.

7. We remain concerned that whilst the draft order specifies a minimum number of Prison Monitoring Coordinators, it does not specify a minimum number of Independent Prison Monitors or suggest a formula for the calculation of a minimum number, depending on the size and type of penal establishment.

8. Nor does the order specify the frequency with which Independent Prison Monitors must visit each penal establishment. Currently there is a statutory requirement for prisons to be visited by two Visiting Committee members every two weeks.

9. We are concerned that the provision for independent prison monitors to handle prisoner complaints has been substantially weakened. The only reference to this issue in the draft order is as follows:

7D(3) Rules made under Section 39 may make provision for assistance to be provided by independent prison monitors in any complaints process provided for under those rules.

The inference here is that IPMs should assist prisoners to lodge complaints via the SPS internal complaints system provided for under the Prison Rules.

10. There are a number of points we wish to raise in connection with this issue:

a. Often an intervention by a Visiting Committee member involves resolving an issue for a prisoner before it becomes a complaint. As Professor Coyle noted in his report: “It may also transpire that the prisoner does not have a complaint in the strict meaning of that word but wishes to seek the assistance of the Visiting Committee to resolve a personal problem or merely to seek information.”

b. It is crucial that prisoners have access to a means of raising concerns and complaints that is independent of the complaints system managed by the Scottish Prison Service (SPS). This is for the following reasons:

i. Many prisoners are mistrustful of the SPS complaints system.
ii. Some issues raised by prisoners require a quick resolution that the SPS complaints system is not capable of delivering.
iii. The SPS complaints system is paper-based and a significant proportion of the prison population has poor literacy skills.
iv. In some cases, prisoners are reluctant to lodge a complaint via the SPS internal complaints system for fear of recrimination (e.g. when complaining about the behaviour of a prison officer).

11. Prisons are closed environments where abuses of power are always a possibility. Unlike those who are in the care of the state or in receipt of public services in the community, persons deprived of their liberty require additional safeguards. Therefore it is absolutely vital that there remains a means by which prisoners can raise concerns (or complaints) which is independent and unconnected with the SPS internal complaints system.

12. We are mindful of the fact that prisoners are able to seek recourse to independent adjudication through the Scottish Public Services Ombudsman (SPSO) under the following circumstances:
“We look into complaints where a member of the public claims to have suffered injustice or hardship as a result of maladministration or service failure. We are the ‘last resort’, and look at complaints which have been through the formal complaints procedure of the organisation concerned.” (SPSO website)

13. However, as Professor Coyle noted in his report: “An important feature of a prisoner’s right to raise matters with Visiting Committee members is that this is one the few external avenues which includes the ability to speak face to face with an independent person.” Nor is it open to prisoners to seek redress via the SPSO unless they are able to demonstrate that they have utilised the SPS internal complaints system. We have already made clear why there are often good reasons why prisoners may not wish to raise concerns or complaints by this means.

14. In general terms, there is a shift from specifying the duties and requirements of the prison monitoring function from statute to guidance. As noted above, the draft order does not specify a minimum frequency with which IPMs are to visit prisons or a minimum number of IPMs for each penal establishment. This is a matter of concern because changes can be made to the guidance without recourse to Parliament.

15. The redrafted order now makes provision for the setting up of a Prison Monitoring Advisory Group. In addition to the functions set out under Section 7F(4), such a Group should exist to provide a ‘challenge function’ to those carrying out monitoring work. For that reason, we suggest that any staff involved in monitoring should attend the Group as observers rather than members. Also, recruitment to the Group should be carried out under an open public appointments system for specified periods.

16. Four of Professor Coyle’s recommendations were referred for consideration to the Independent Monitoring Implementation Group. In recent meetings of this Group, Howard League Scotland has repeatedly argued in favour of these recommendations:
o Recommendation 7 - Monitors should be appointed under an open public appointments system for specified periods.

o Recommendation 13 - The monitors for each prison should elect a chairperson and to meet as a group in the prison at least every two months.

o Recommendation 14 - Arrangements should be made for appointing a paid clerk to take the minutes of each meeting of the independent prison monitors and to assist in administrative matters including preparing the annual report and any other reports as necessary. Monitors should have appropriate accommodation and other facilities.

o Recommendation 15 - Provision should be made for a Council of Independent Prison Monitors to include one monitor from each prison. The Council should agree protocols for, among other matters, recruitment, appointment and training of independent monitors as well as a format for annual reports.

17. It is now time for the Scottish Government to state publicly whether or not it favours the adoption of these recommendations and if they are to be rejected, it must make clear the reasons why. If the recommendations are to be adopted, then we would like to see them included in the order.

18. It would be helpful if the Scottish Government could methodically list those of Professor Coyle’s recommendations that it accepted in the wake of his report that it now rejects. For example, it would appear that Recommendation 5 (“The independent monitors for each prison should submit an annual report to Scottish Ministers and should publish these reports.”) has been superseded by the proposal that there should be one overarching annual report for all 16 penal establishments in Scotland.

19. The current review of the role of Visiting Committees commenced in January 2011 and even on the most optimistic timescale, the new arrangements are unlikely to be in place before the summer of 2015. During this time period, we are aware that the numbers of Visiting Committee members have been dwindling, due to the uncertainty about their role and disappointment at the way in which the process has been handled. The ultimate losers in this process are those held in Scottish prisons, for whom this important scrutiny function exists to serve.

Lord Carloway Drummond Hunter Lecture - full paper

The annual Drummond Hunter Lecture was a great success this year, with over 200 people in attendance to hear Lord Carloway discuss The Purpose of Sentencing – From Beccaria to the OLR and Beyond’.

You can find a full copy of his talk here: Howard League Scotland Drummond Hunter Lecture 2014

Scottish Government’s Draft Budget 2014/15

Howard League Scotland response to Scottish Government’s Draft Budget 2014/15

We are grateful for the opportunity to comment upon the Scottish Government’s Draft Budget 2014/15 as it relates to the Justice portfolio.

The aim of the Howard League for Penal Reform in Scotland is to promote just responses to the causes and consequences of crime. Scotland’s imprisonment rate is one of the highest in western Europe and far too many people reoffend after release from prison, particularly those who have served short term sentences.

We wish to make two points about the Draft Budget 2014/15.

Balance of resources for custodial and community-based disposals

As we understand it, the Scottish Government remains committed to the findings and recommendations of the report of the Scottish Prisons Commission (2008). Speaking September 2007, the Justice Secretary said: “I refuse to believe that Scottish people are inherently bad, so why are we locking up twice as many offenders as Ireland or Norway?” The report recommended reducing Scotland’s prison population by “focusing the use of imprisonment on those who have committed serious crimes and constitute a danger to the public”. And yet, since the report was published in 2008, the prison population has risen further.

We are therefore concerned to note that the budget for the Scottish Prison Service will rise in real terms from £364.5m in 2013/14 to £375.2m in 2014/15, including capital expenditure. Excluding capital expenditure, we note that the budget rises in cash terms from £342.0m in 2013/14 to £368.9 m in 2014/15, and is held at £368.2m in 2015/16, which will still represent a real terms increase over the period. Conversely the budget for community justice will experience a small real terms decrease from £31.9m in 2013/14 to £31.7m in 2014/15 and a further decrease to £31.1m in 2015/16.

If the Scottish Government is serious about reserving prison for the most serious and dangerous offenders and making greater use of community-based disposals, it is hard to see how this will happen without a greater shift in resources from custody to community justice. The budget for community justice is less than 10% of the budget for the Scottish Prison Service.

Capital expenditure on the female prison estate

As you will know, Scotland’s female prison population has doubled over the past decade and we were pleased that the Scottish Government accepted most of the recommendations of the report of the Commission on Women Offenders (2012). The report recommended the closure of HMP Cornton Vale and the establishment of a “smaller, specialist prison”. It also recommended “the establishment of a powerful community justice service with strong and robust alternatives to custody”.

With the proposed new facility at HMP Inverclyde, as well as the plans to create a regional facility for women at HMP Edinburgh, we remain concerned that there is to be no reduction in capacity for female offenders within the prison estate. We are concerned that this will militate against greater use of community disposals for female offenders. Given the damaging effects of prison on women and their families, it is vital that resources are directed towards community-based solutions to women’s offending behaviour.

11 October 2013

Howard League Scotland

Pages

Archive

2015

2014

2012

2006